STUDY OF SOIL MECHANICS

Friday, September 29, 2023, By Jessica Hernández, Real estate advisor and marketing analyst in SILMÉXICO

In a previous post, we talked about soil classification and how important it is to identify them when planning a construction project. To do this, it is necessary to carry out a soil analysis, which will be discussed below. 

Soil analyses allow us to know the chemical, physical, and mechanical characteristics of the land where the work will be carried out, the layers or strata that make up the soil as well as its depth.

The study of soils or soil mechanics is made up of 3 stages:

1. Exploration and land testing

In this first stage, a reconnaissance of the site is carried out, strategic points are explored and soil samples are taken, which will be analyzed later in a second stage in the laboratory. These samples are taken through various techniques and tools such as:

    • Calicata: to make excavations of small or medium depth in chosen points of the ground. This seeks to have a direct view of the terrain that is generally not seen, for its characterization and analysis.
    • Penetrometer: consists of the penetration of the soil with the introduction of this tool into the ground, which generally has a conical shape.

Probes: Through these, the ground is drilled with a cylindrical probe that extracts the soil trapped inside the cylinder. As the samples are taken, they are placed in order of depth in boxes, to determine the type of soil at different depths.

2. Laboratory work

In this second stage, all the samples taken in stage 1 are taken to the laboratory for analysis. Laboratory tests will allow us to know issues such as humidity level, consistency limits, pressures, and sky components, among others.

3. Preparation of final report

The last stage consists of writing the final report of the study carried out, in which all the observations, results of the samples, and the characteristics of the land are detailed, whether it is suitable or not to carry out the construction project, it is delimited the amount of weight the soil can support, and recommendations on materials and construction are also issued.

 

Have you ever wondered why the Tower of Pisa is tilted? This was not precisely the design or the intention for this historical and tourist monument, the reason for its inclination is that at the beginning, the work was vertical, but over time it was inclined because it is located on unstable ground and does not have foundations to support the weight of its 56 meters high. That is why the study of soil mechanics is important, it allows the land to be prepared according to the structure that is intended to be built, which will determine whether or not it can deal with the passage of years, possible telluric movements, etc. Correctly carrying out this study can save lives, as well as preserve large and important buildings.

 

Interested in a soil study for your new project? At SILMÉXICO we have an expert construction team, in charge of carrying out all the relevant work prior to the start of a project. Come to us and get to know about all our services.

WHAT IS THE TRUST MANAGEMENT?

By Thorvald Pazos Casas, SILMÉXICO Research Center, Translated  by Jessica HernándezJessica Hernández

Trust is a fickle legal instrument, which has been transformed over time and has become popular in commercial practices. Recently, we can say that it is the rise of this very flexible legal vehicle, there is certainly no specific law that regulates all aspects of this figure, however, the Trust has been strengthened through a solid legal foundation that depends on the type of trust that is intended to be established, which implies the consultation of various current Mexican laws. In this article, we will focus on one of its most significant variants: Trust Management.

TRUST MANAGEMENT

What is the Trust? The Trust in accordance with the contemplated provisions in the General Law of Credit Titles and Operations2 (LGTOC), in its number 381. It is a contract or a legal transaction through which a person called Trustor, transfers the ownership or ownership of assets and/or rights to a financial institution, called fiduciary so that it conforms to the purposes and objectives of the contract that manages the assets or rights in favor of the trustees or beneficiaries. 

From the previous concept, it is important to address two questions; Who can participate in a trust? Can all assets and rights be transferred? According to the first of the questions raised, article 381 of The LGTOC mentions that people with capacity can be subjects, this is in relationship with the Civil Code of the State of Oaxaca in its numerals 21 and 25 respectively, they mention that people are divided into: Natural Person and Moral person. This means that both individuals and legal entities (companies, etc.) can participate in a trust, as long as they comply with the legal requirements and can exercise their rights and obligations. For its part, regarding the second question, it is important to focus on that, people have the ability to decide what to do with their assets and/or rights freely, except and with the exceptions that these are found in commerce, are lawful and do not affect third parties. That is, in the example of not affecting third parties, it refers to the fact that you cannot transfer food rights, or use a trust to avoid your responsibilities in that regard. In this sense, it is mentioned that certain assets and rights cannot be transmitted through a trust if its transfer violates laws or affects the legal sphere of third parties. Knowing the previous generalities, we are going to study one of the variants that the Trust has, which is known as “Fideicomiso de administration”. Rodolfo Batiza states that “TRUST MANAGEMENT” is known in which the trustor delivers real estate to the trustee who is responsible for the execution of lease contracts, the collection of rents, the promotion of eviction or eviction trials, payment of various taxes levied on real property, etc., all in the interest of the beneficiary”.

Manuel Villagordoa Lozano3 points out that management trusts “are those by virtue of which certain assets or assets are transferred to the trustee rights, so that the fiduciary proceeds to carry out the custody operations, conservation or collection of products of the trust assets entrusted to him the trustor, delivering the products or benefits to the trustee”.

What we can interpret from the two previous definitions, the function of administration trust is to transmit to the trustee certain assets and rights (real or personal property, real or personal rights, including securities, titles, credits, and cash) for him to keep, guard, manage, collect and transmit in your favor or to a third party. Then the question arises, when can we use trust management? There will be trust management provided that the trustee is prohibited (because it is not part of the purposes of the trust) the provision of assets in favor of the trustee or a third party.

The activities that the trust carries out are those related to the custody and conservation of the assets that make up the trust assets, as well as the collection of products or returns that they generate and transmit to a third party. Likewise, you may make the investment of trust assets through the acquisition of goods of another nature.

The constitution of Trust Management not only protects your personal assets from external threats, but it can also improve your financial situation by reducing the tax burden. It is a smart strategy to effectively manage and safeguard your assets, offering you the peace of mind and security you need on your path to financial success. Commercially, Trust Management is a flexible legal instrument that adapts perfectly to the needs of the operation, and additionally provides great benefits such as, Can the assets of trust be seized? They cannot be seized by creditors or debts against the trustor. The assets and rights are in the name of the trustee and not in the name of the trustor. Only the rights are seized (but if there are no instructions (from the committee) of payment, nothing is delivered). 

Does the trust pay taxes? The trust as such does not, since according to the Art 1 of the LISR, those obliged are the Natural Persons and the Legal Persons, however, the Trust is not a person. Therefore, those who must pay the taxes are the settlors and the trustees. 

1 Mendoza, C. (29 de marzo del 2022). El Fideicomiso y sus implicaciones tributarias. Colegio de Contadores Públicos de México. https://www.contadoresmexico.org.mx/Vida-colegiada/Fideicomisos-y-sus-implicancias-tributarias

2 Ley General de Títulos y Operaciones de Crédito. DOF 22-06-2018.

https://www.diputados.gob.mx/LeyesBiblio/index.htm#:~:text=22/06/2018-,PDF,-WORD 

3 Mendoza, C. (29 de marzo del 2022). El Fideicomiso y sus implicaciones tributarias. Colegio de Contadores Públicos de México.

https://www.contadoresmexico.org.mx/Vida-colegiada/Fideicomisos-y-sus-implicancias-tributarias 

¿AFECTA O NO EL ÓMICRON EN REAL ESTATE ?

 

By Dolores Islas.

He platicado en un podcast sobre el tema de la pandemia y hoy lo quiero profundizar, porque mucha gente pensaba, que ya estábamos acercándonos a la normalidad y aparece una nueva variante y con ello se generan nuevos efectos, se desestabiliza todo este tema de las inversiones del mercado inmobiliario, así que los efectos o el impacto que tiene esta nueva variante del COVID-19 “Ómicron” en el mercado inmobiliario es lo que este blog abordaremos.

Esta pandemia ha convertido básicamente una crisis que inició en la salud mundial, en una crisis económica, y que obviamente ha cambiado el futuro, ha transformado nuestra realidad y nuestro presente, es un desafío incierto. El sector inmobiliario no es ajeno a los efectos de esta crisis y en muchos aspectos, es una de las industrias que obviamente está siendo realmente impactada en diferentes aspectos y obviamente unas consideraciones que contemplar y he detectado 8 elementos importantes.

Primero, en el sector inmobiliario hay operaciones y transacciones prácticamente más lentas que otras, incluso paralizadas, en mi punto de vista y en mi experiencia no he visto paralizarse nada en ningún momento ni siquiera cuando empezó la pandemia hace dos años, creo que llegó un momento en el que se tuvo un espacio como de replanteamiento como de generar observar y empezar adaptarse, pero cuando llegó la pandemia el primer impacto fue renegociar contratos de arrendamiento, renegociar pagos, pero no se paralizó , siempre hubo una constante renegociación, transferencias de arriba a abajo de adaptación, de nuevas tecnologías.

Si he visto al contrario disminuir algunos gastos operativos, se cuida mucho la caja chica, se vela por el mantenimiento del valor de sus activos y se están evaluando escenarios futuros para la industria post covid, y por lo tanto las decisiones en el sector inmobiliario se están dando a corto plazo, es importante que todos los factores y pensando en fondos de inversión, en inversionistas, en desarrolladores, en constructores, en administradores y brokers, evalúen escenarios de la pandemia, haciendo cambios constantes que harán de los negocios inmobiliarios, proyectos que permitan adaptarse rápidamente a los cambios, cada vez veo más que los inversionistas y desarrolladores están buscando o estamos buscando financiamiento alternativo, no se están arriesgando con su capital al 100%, de hecho no es sano en un proyecto inmobiliario arriesgar el 100% de tu capital. Siempre tienes que buscar áreas de apalancamiento desde preventas hasta inversión privada, inversión institucional, pero por ejemplo si tu eres un inversionista en real estate y estás acostumbrado a invertir o a prestar dinero en proyectos inmobiliarios es una buena oportunidad, porque hoy en día he detectado que la gente y sobre todo los desarrolladores se enfocan a no tener los riesgos en la totalidad de su capital.